|Titanium grade list. Chemical copmosition|
Titanium (Ti) - a chemical element with atomic number 22, atomic weight 47.88, light silver-white metal. Density of 4.51 g/cm3, melting point. = 1668 °C, boiling point. = 3260 °C. For commercial titanium VT1-00 and VT1-0 density approximately 4.32 g/cm3. Titanium and titanium alloys combine lightness, strength, high corrosion resistance, low coefficient of thermal expansion, the ability to work in a wide range of temperatures (from -290 ° C to 600 ° C).
Titanium dioxide TiO2 was first discovered in 1789 by William Gregor, who in the study of magnetic ferrous oxide sand allocated unknown metal. The first sample of titanium metal was discovered in 1825 by J. Berzelius.
Titanium alloys are known all over the world for its unique properties. it has a solid mechanical strength, heat resistance, thermal conductivity, resistance to harsh environments, compatible with the flesh. Titanium alloys are corrosion resistant even in the sea, so it is used in shipbuilding, aviation, engineering and chemical industries.
There are several ways to produce titanium alloys - casting and powder alloys.
Titanium alloy powder obtained by the use of the latest methods of powder metallurgy. Titanium melted in a vacuum. The cost of titanium alloy powder is higher than others. Used in the construction of aircraft and engines.
Casting alloys used to produce high-quality alloys of titanium. Cast alloys less mechanically robust.
Structural titanium alloys widely used in the missile industry, shipbuilding and aircraft construction. Structural titanium alloys used for various components in the construction of that work load. Structural titanium alloys have the reliability, durability and strength.
The main part of titanium spending on aircraft and missiles and naval shipbuilding. Titan (ferrotitanium) is used as an additive to ligation quality steel and a reducing agent. Technology is used to make titanium vessels, chemical reactors, piping, valves, pumps, valves and other products for operation in hostile environments. Is made up of a compact titanium mesh and other details eletktrovakuumnyh devices operating at high temperatures.
For use as a structural material titanium is on the fourth place, behind only Al, Fe and Mg. Titanium aluminides are highly resistant to oxidation and heat resistance, which in turn determined their use in the aviation and automotive industries as construction materials. Biological harmlessness of titanium makes it an excellent material for the food industry and reconstructive surgery.
Titanium and its alloys are widely of Application in engineering due to its high strength Mehnichesky that persists at high temperatures, corrosion resistance, heat resistance, specific strength, low density, and other useful features. The high cost of titanium and its alloys are often offset by their greater capacity for work, and in some cases they are the only material from which to produce equipment or structures that can operate in a given context.
The basic requirements for materials for aircraft - high specific strength, heat resistance, fatigue resistance, strength and resistance to corrosion.
The main grades of titanium alloys for aircraft: OT4, BT6, VT22
Titanium alloys are used in aircraft as components: Coating, fasteners, machinery in the chassis, wings, hydraulic cylinders, different units, etc.
Titanium alloys are used in helicopters in the rotors and drives control system. Titanium alloys are manufactured rotor head, tail rotor, pins, clamps, housings axial joints, tip of the blade.
Helicopter uses titanium alloys VT6 VT5-1, VT22.
Titanium is used in the gas turbine and turbojet engines. Titanium alloys are used for the production of fans and compressors, drives, blades, vanes, intermediate rings, the motor housing.
The main objects of the titanium solid and liquid rocket engines, shell, shell powder motors, tubular structures butt sections of units for various applications, including gas pressure vessels, fixtures, etc.
Basic requirements for titanium alloys in these structures are high specific strength, and in some cases - the low brittleness, high pressure steam in a high vacuum and other missiles used almost the entire range of structural titanium alloys.
In shipbuilding titanium alloys are used mainly as a corrosion-resistant material in the marine environment. Titanium alloy produced ships propellers, heat exchangers and other equipment ship.
Titanium alloys are well suited for welding all types of welding and have good ductility. The main grades - Grade 7
In the domestic industry titanium alloys are mainly used in chemical industry, power and transport engineering, light industry, food industry and household appliances.
Titanium alloys are used to make parts such as connecting rods, intake and exhaust valves, the rocker valves and silencers.
One of the useful properties of titanium is its biological compatibility with the flesh. Titanium alloy Grade 5 is the ideal material for the prosthesis.
The combination of high specific strength and near-perfect compatibility of titanium with human body makes it the most promising material for the manufacture of prostheses and implants. Dental metal-ceramic crowns and bridges, dentures.
The increasing use of titanium in the sports equipment (racing bikes, climbing equipment).
In appearance similar to steel. Titan is a transition element. The metal melts at a very high temperature (1668 ± 5 °C) and boils at 3300 °C, the latent heat of melting and evaporation of titanium is almost two times higher than iron.
There are two allotropic modification of titanium. Low-temperature alpha-modification exists up to 882,5 °C, and high-beta-modification, stable from 882,5 °C up to the melting point.
Density and specific heat of titanium is intermediate between the two main structural metals: aluminum and iron. It should also be noted that its mechanical strength is about twice higher than iron, and nearly six times higher than aluminum. But titanium can actively absorb oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen, which dramatically reduces the plastic properties of the metal. With carbon titanium forms refractory carbides and have high hardness.
Titanium has a low thermal conductivity, which is 13 times less than the thermal conductivity of aluminum and 4 times than iron. Thermal expansion coefficient at room temperature is relatively small.
Elastic of titanium is small. A small value of the titanium elastic - a significant lack of it, as in some cases, to obtain a sufficiently rigid structures have to use the large cross sections of products, compared with those that follow from strength.
|Physical and mechanical properties of titanium|
|Density at 20 ° C, g/cm3
|Melting point, ° C||1668|
|Boiling point, ° C||3260|
|Latent heat of fusion, G/g||358|
|Latent heat of vaporization, kG/g||8,97|
|Heat of fusion, kJ / mole||18,8|
|Heat of vaporization, kJ / mole||422,6|
|Molar volume, cm ³ / mole||10,6|
|Specific heat at 20 ° C, kJ / (kg · ° C)||0,54|
|Thermal conductivity at 20 ° C, W / (m · K)||18,85|
|Coefficient of linear thermal expansion at 25 ° C
|Electrical resistance at 20 ° C
|Modulus of normal elasticity, hPa||112|
|Shear modulus, hPa||41|
|group metals||Refractory and light metal|
|Сhemical properties of titanium|
|Ion radius||(+4e) 68 (+2e) 94|
|Electronegativity (according to Pauling)||1,54|
|Electrode potential||- 1,63|
|Oxidation states||2, 3, 4|
Pure titanium has a tensile strength 24.5 kg/mm2. High-alloyed titanium have high tensile strength values.
Plasticity - the ability to be deformed without breaking. Plastic material can bend, stretch and squeeze.
Pure titanium melted in electric arc furnaces. Depending on the content of impurities, titanium has the following performance plasticity elongation of 20-40% and 45-65% narrowing of the cross section.
Plasticity of commercial titanium alloys range from 70 to 105 kg/mm2. These alloys are melted in electric arc furnaces, and have satisfactory ductility (10-20%). Alloys that are melted in an induction furnace have a much higher strength.
Titanium is much harder than aluminum, and its hardness is similar to some of the heat-treated steels.
Impact resistance, ability to withstand shock loads. Titan is one of the few metals which, along with high strength and ductility have good impact resistance. The most common method for determining the impact resistance - check failure in bending.
Titanium has excellent endurance. Tests show that the endurance limit is 60% of the tensile strength.
Creep - elongation of the material at a constant load. Also defined as the force required to produce a specific extension in time.
Research have shown that unalloyed titanium has a low resistance to creep, although titanium alloys for this indicator is better.
Effect of temperature and strain hardening on the mechanical properties. As the temperature decreases, the rate of creep, strength, stress, fatigue and firmness improves. An increase in temperature has little effect on the elasticity, but is accompanied by improvement of strength and ductility.
With increasing temperature, the strength drops sharply, and the softening point of titanium is slower.
Our company supplies titanium ingots, titanium bars, titanium tubes, titanium sheets and plates, also titanium wire VT1-0, OT4-0, OT4-1, OT4, VT5-1, VT5, VT6 VT6S, VTZ-1, VT8, VT9, VT14, VT15, VT16, VT18 VT18U, VT20, VT22, BT-23, VT25, PT1M, Alloy 2B PT3V, PT-7M.
LLC "Renal-D" supplies titanium from stock in Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine: