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Copper

Copper

Copper

Copper - a soft and ductile metal yellow-red colored. Main properties of copper - high electrical and thermal conductivity, resistance to oxidation and corrosion. To improve its physical and technical characteristics copper alloys doped with various metals and minerals. The main additives include Aluminum, zinc, tin, phosphorus, beryllium, nickel, manganese and silicon.

Industrial production of copper based on the leaching of copper pyrites and other mineral compounds acidic solutions. With refining to produce metal with minimal impurities. When interacting with oxygen copper covered with a protective oxide layer, which protects the metal surface from the negative effects of corrosion. Due to the fact that stocks of copper in the earth's crust are limited, plays an important role recycling ferrous scrap by thermal refining. Also it determines its high cost compared to other Non-ferrous metals.

Industry produces copper in the form of cathodes, ingots and semi-finished products (sheet, strip, rods, tubes, wire, forgings). Copper is a good material for shaped castings.

Molten copper also prevents saturation sulfur impurities which impair its mechanical properties.

The high thermal and electrical conductivity of copper hinder its electric welding, especially in the form of massive products. Thin copper parts and semi-finished products can be welded using electrodes made ​​of Tungsten and Molybdenum.

Details of thickness greater than 2 mm can be welded neutral acetylene-oxygen flame. The most reliable way to connect copper products - brazing and soldering.

Copper is perfectly stamped, but it should be in the annealed condition, it has a considerable anisotropy of mechanical properties caused by the formation of festoons in deep drawing. To reduce leaf festoons (strip) copper should be prepared according to a special manufacturing process. For components manufactured by cutting, recommended work-hardened copper.

Application

Due to the ease of machining application of copper began in the distant past. Over the years the area of its scope has expanded significantly affected many branches of modern industry. The growing popularity of rolled copper provided a number of useful properties of the metal.

Low resistivity of copper makes it main material for cable and conductor of the new generation in electrical engineering. High strength seamless copper tubing in demand for transportation of liquids and gases. In the construction - copper roofing and gutter systems, advanced equipment. It is used in low-temperature research and production complex, advanced nanotechnology, printing, building monuments and casting bells.

Copper is also widely used for corrosion protective coatings.

Copper has high electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, ductility, melting point, corrosion resistance, excellent processability pressure in the cold and hot state, good casting properties and satisfactory machinability. With these valuable qualities of copper is used in electrical engineering, various fields of mechanical engineering, electronics and instrumentation.

Semi-finished copper products supplied in a soft (annealed), semi-solid and solid state.

Application

CopperThe value of copper is the fact that to this day, the metal is used along with gold and silver as a payment. Indeed, copper alloys are used in many countries to mint coins, although the status of the precious metal, which had copper in ancient Greece and Rome, these days almost lost. Seemingly long gone great copper armor and weapons have disappeared from use luxurious copper jewelry and dishes, but now copper, thanks to its exclusive features, again plays an important strategic role in innovative technologies and advanced manufacturing.

Indeed, the enormous popularity of rolled copper today gave this item a leading position in the ranking of Non-ferrous metals used in the global economy. This leadership is primarily due to the unique properties - high ductility, electrical and thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance and excellent interaction with other metals to create a unique alloys. Each copper alloy has a competitive advantage, identifying priority areas of use. Therefore, modern copper rolled different variety of physical and chemical characteristics of the proposed product mix that allows you to use products in this category for a wide number of problems in production and construction.

Great demand of rolled copper products used in the following areas:

  • creation of cable and conductor of the new generation - the best performance in comparison with other Non-ferrous metals;
  • successful use of copper alloys in scientific and industrial complex, working at low temperatures;
  • production of advanced HVAC equipment - heat exchangers, radiators and pipes of copper today are absolute leaders in its class;
  • manufacturing overhead lines for public electric;
  • electrical industry, which are mainly used alloyed copper alloys with low conductivity and high resistance, such as copper anode;
  • manufacture of seamless drawn pipes used in corrosion pipeline;
  • production of modern roofing materials, has an amazing look and long life;
  • application in advanced nanotechnology, which are produced using copper alloys, not inferior in its strength steel counterparts;
  • production of wind power;
  • manufacture of ammunition with the popular alloy of copper and zinc - brass;
  • production of dies and typographic fonts;
  • creation of monuments, casting bells.

From the above, we can conclude - Today copper is undoubtedly the most promising strategic commodity in the global market-ferrous metal.

Grade list

Chemical composition of copper
Grade Сu (min) Impurities (min)
Bi Sb As Fe Ni Pb Sn S O2 Zn P Total
M00 99,99 0,0005 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,001 0,002 0,001 0,001 0,01
М0 99,95 0,001 0,002 0,002 0,004 0,002 0,004 0,002 0,004 0,02 0,004 0,002 0,05
М0б 99,97 0,001 0,002 0,002 0,004 0,002 0,004 0,002 0,004 0,001 0,003 0,002 0,03
Ml 99,90 0,001 0,002 0,002 0,005 0,002 0,005 0,002 0,005 0,05 0,005 0,1
Mlp 99,90 0,001 0,002 0,002 0,005 0,002 0,005 0,002 0,005 0,01 0,005 0,04 0,1
М2 99,70 0,002 0,005 0,01 0,05 0,2 0,01 0,05 0,01 0,07 0.3
М2р 99,70 0,002 0,005 0.01 0,05 0,2 0,01 0,05 0,01 0,01 0,04 0,3
МЗ 99,50 0,003 0,05 0,01 0,05 0,2 0,05 0,05 0,01 0,08 0,5
МЗр 99,50 0,003 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,2 0,03 0,05 0,01 0,01 0,04 0,5
М4 99,0 0,005 0,2 0,2 0,1 0,3 0,02 0,15 1,0
АМФ rest 0,001 0,002 0,002 0,005 0,002 0,005 0,002 0,005 0,05 0,005 0,03-0,16 0,1

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